A perennial herb of base-rich upland grasslands, particularly those flushed by calcareous springs, and moist limestone or mica-schist crags, slopes and ledges. Though it can tolerate some shading, it is generally found in open situations and short vegetation, often in species-rich communities. It is usually found at moderate or high altitudes, reaching 1035 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth), but it descends to sea level in N. Scotland.
A shortly rhizomatous perennial typically found in meadows and pastures on dry, calcareous or base-rich soils; also occurring in grasslands and heaths on mildly acidic soils, and in well-drained pastures, ledges and flushes in the uplands. 0-765 m (Knock Fell, Westmorland).
This rhizomatous perennial herb is found in fens and base-poor mires, where it usually grows in standing water. Propagation appears to be mainly vegetative by long trailing runners, although genetic variation within its populations suggests that it also reproduces by seed. Lowland.
A perennial herb of lowland bogs, floating Sphagnum rafts in lowland basin mires, nutrient-poor mires in the mountains, and wet, acidic, occasionally sandy heaths. 0-1100 m (Ben Alder, Westerness).
This species has been recorded in Britain only in a calcareous mire at Lansdown near Bath (N. Somerset). Lowland.
A perennial herb of dry, base-rich, free-draining soils. At its two extant sites in England it grows in semi-shade on laneside banks at the edge of deciduous woodland; in Ireland it grows in a partially shaded, wooded limestone area. It cannot tolerate deep shade. Lowland.
A perennial herb of wet, peaty areas, tolerating both acidic soils and those flushed by calcareous springs. It is often found on the margins of pools and in swamps, though it can also thrive on the edges of wet woods, among scattered trees or in fen-carr. Generally lowland, but reaching 370 m near Malham Tarn (Mid-W. Yorks.).
A perennial herb, mainly occurring in open deciduous woodland over limestone, but also found on adjacent scree, rock outcrops, and sheltered limestone pavement. It seeds freely in lightly shaded habitats but ceases to flower and dies out if the canopy becomes too closed or the site overgrown. New plants can appear from dormant seed following disturbance. Lowland.
A shortly rhizomatous perennial herb of very wet, neutral to base-rich mires. It grows particularly well in silty, calcareous mud and by the edges of lime-rich flushes and springs. Although it occurs at sea level, many sites are at moderate or high altitudes, ascending to about 1000 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).
A perennial herb found on sea-cliffs, rocky shores, in coastal grasslands and the uppermost parts of saltmarshes; usually growing in bare rock-crevices or on free-draining sandy or gravelly substrates, but also in flushes and seepage zones on cliffs, and where streams debouch onto the shore. Inland, it occurs in wet meadows, marshes and fens on mineral-rich soils. Lowland.