A generally sterile hybrid, found near both parents in a range of habitats, including woodland rides and clearings, ditch-sides, roadside banks and the damp ledges of sea-cliffs. Lowland.
A tufted perennial herb, especially of acidic grassland, frequent in upland pastures, Nardus grassland and Calluna moorland. It is also common on lowland heaths, in damp meadows, woodland rides and edges, in ruderal habitats, and sometimes in moderately base-rich flushes and dune-slacks. It can be frequent in meadows which have been improved, and have then regressed. 0-1005 m (Lochnagar, S. Aberdeen).
A perennial herb of damp grassland, woodland rides and clearings and stream banks; usually on moist, mildly acidic to neutral soils. In the Scottish mountains and some of the hills of northern England it is found on acidic, wet grassy slopes. Lowland to 790 m in Atholl (E. Perth).
A perennial herb found in a wide range of damp or wet habitats on neutral to moderately acidic soils, including marshy grassland, hay- and water-meadows, mires, sea-cliff grassland, heaths and flushes in montane grassland; also, in N. & W. Britain and Ireland, in the uppermost parts of saltmarshes. 0-1125 m (Cairngorms).
This tussock-forming perennial herb occurs in a wide range of habitats, usually somewhat base-enriched, including swamps and fens, the edges of lakes, ponds, canals and ditches, open fen-carr and swampy woodland. It usually grows in the open, where it fruits freely, but tolerates moderate shade, although it can become smaller and less vigorous, flowering only sparsely. Generally lowland, but to over 600 m on Gylchedd (Denbs.).
A herb of wet fen-woodland and carr, especially where there is seasonal inundation, often growing in close association with C. paniculata. It is sterile and tolerates shade. Lowland.
A perennial herb of wet, acidic, oligotrophic raised and blanket bogs, often growing on and around hummocks and usually in association with Sphagnum species. Lowland to 650 m (Beinn Heasgarnich, Mid Perth) and 820 m elsewhere in Scotland.
A perennial herb usually growing on damp base-rich, heavy (often clay) soils, in shaded habitats. It is found in deciduous woodland, by ditches, ponds, streams, in hedgerows and on track-sides. Reproduction by seed can be prolific. Lowland, but exceptionally at 410 m at Alston (Cumberland).
A perennial herb of dry sites on base-poor, usually acidic soils; its habitats include sandy heaths, dune grassland, open woodlands, upland grassland and moorland. 0-1140 m (Beinn a` Bhuird, S. Aberdeen).
A pioneer species of wet mud and shallow water, found in a wide variety of habitats including the edges of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, rivers, ditches, canals and backwaters. It also occurs in reedswamps and tall-herb fens, and readily colonises sand-, gravel-, clay- and marl-pits. It is shade-tolerant, and is found in swampy Alnus woods and Salix carr. Reproduction is by seed. Lowland.