This perennial herb is well-established on old walls and bridges, pavements, and in other well-drained rocky and stony places, often near habitation. It is also found as large, prostrate patches on shingle beaches. It can root from fragments or from nodes, and its seeds germinate readily in brick and stone mortar. 0-450 m (Garrigill, Cumberland).
A carpet-forming stoloniferous perennial herb of woods, grassland, hedgerows and waste places, usually on fertile soils. It usually spreads vegetatively by rapid growth of its creeping stems, and seed-set is often very low. 0-465 m (Hawkswick Clowder, Mid-W. Yorks.).
A woody perennial shrub with creeping and climbing stems which is found as a garden escape in hedgerows and scrub, and on waste ground and rubbish tips. It is frost sensitive and is usually grown as a houseplant. Discarded plants are usually casual but can become naturalised in mild climates. Lowland.
An evergreen perennial climber found as a garden escape in woodland, hedges and scrub and on roadsides, railway banks, walls and waste ground. It reproduces vegetatively and by seed, which can be bird-sown. Lowland.
An evergreen perennial woody climber most characteristic of woodland, scrub and hedgerows, but also common on walls, rock outcrops and cliffs. It may carpet the ground in secondary woodland. It generally favours basic to moderately acidic soils. It is highly palatable to deer and stock, and in grazed upland areas becomes restricted to inaccessible rock outcrops. 0-610 m (Mourne Mountains, Co. Down).
An evergreen perennial climber of woodland, scrub, hedgerows, walls, rock outcrops and cliffs, which may also sprawl over the ground. It avoids only the most acidic soils and is highly palatable to deer and stock; in grazed upland areas it becomes restricted to inaccessible rock outcrops. Altitudinal limit unknown.
An evergreen perennial climber of woodland, scrub, hedgerows, walls, rock outcrops and cliffs, which may also sprawl over the ground. It avoids only the most acidic soils. Altitudinal limit unknown.
The only submerged species of Lemna in our area, L. trisulca is frequent in mesotrophic to eutrophic, still to slowly flowing waters where low nutrient levels or exposure prevent the development of a dense blanket of floating Lemna species. Reproduction is by vegetative budding; flowering is very rare. Generally lowland, but reaching 340 m at Kingside Loch (Selkirks.).
An annual or perennial parasite which grows on the roots of Hedera helix, especially subsp. hibernica, and, rarely, on other cultivated Araliaceae. Its habitat is that of its host and includes coastal cliffs, open rocky woodland, quarries, hedge banks and other similar habitats. Lowland.
A woody, climbing perennial which occurs on old walls, in hedges and on river banks and waste ground. Lowland.