This perennial herb of coastal grassland occurs in rough grassland and scrubby places adjoining saltmarsh or brackish grazing marsh, on creek sides and on sea walls; also on waste ground and, rarely, on roadsides. Plants spread by rhizomatous growth, but seed ripens only in warm years. Lowland.
A perennial herb naturalised in moist or damp grassy areas, including marshy pasture, on hillsides and by streams and rivers, and sometimes established around farm buildings. Generally lowland, but reaching 385 m at Langdon Beck (Co. Durham).
A biennial or short-lived perennial herb, mainly growing on permanently damp peat, often in sites flooded in winter. It is most characteristic of tall-herb fen, being found in both cut and uncut stands. It can survive in fen scrub and alder-carr, and it occurs rarely in marshes and damp pasture. Lowland.