A biennial herb which forms small but persistent colonies on cliffs, banks and waste ground in coastal areas. These colonies usually have uncrisped leaves. The crisped form which is commonly grown in gardens occurs as a casual close to habitation both near the sea and inland. Lowland.
This slender biennial of well-drained calcareous soils on clay or chalk is found on arable fields margins, on grassy banks, roadsides, railway banks, river banks, by sea walls, in drained estuarine marshes, on rough waste ground and occasionally as a garden weed. Lowland.
A perennial herb of fens, damp meadows and rough-grazed marshy pasture on calcareous peaty soils or fen peat overlying chalk. It does not grow on the wettest ground in fens, but prefers slightly better-drained fringe areas and low banks. Lowland.