A perennial herb of damp or free-draining, neutral and acidic soils. Habitats include woodland clearings, neglected pastures, hay meadows, grass-heaths, hedge banks and waysides. It is tolerant of some nutrient enrichment, and is often a constituent of neglected pasture. 0-740 m (Knock Fell, Westmorland).
This winter-green perennial herb occurs in hedgerows, copses and woodland margins, and on unmanaged grassy roadsides. It tolerates a wide range of soils, but does best on those that are moist, mildly acid and infertile. It avoids permanently wet conditions and the most freely-drained substrates. 0-915 m (Beinn an Dothaidh, Main Argyll), although this record was for a non-flowering specimen.
An annual or a short-lived perennial herb, capable of two or three generations in a year, found in a wide range of disturbed habitats, especially in nutrient-enhanced conditions. It is a conspicuous weed of gardens or crops, also found on manure heaps, in sewage works, on walls, and often in recently established plantations. It is also a characteristic plant of coastal strand lines and sea-bird rocks. 0-950 m (Mt Brandon, S. Kerry).
An annual to short-lived perennial herb of damp, shaded places such as hedgerows, wood margins, streamsides and the borders of damp copses, on a range of soils from stiff, poorly-drained clays to damp sand and peaty alluvium. Generally lowland, but reaching 440 m at Kinloch Rannoch (Mid Perth).
This herbaceous, stoloniferous perennial prefers fertile soils and occurs mostly in damp, shaded habitats, and sometimes on periodically flooded ground. It is usually found by streamsides and ditches and in wet woods and damp hedge banks. Generally lowland, but reaching c. 915 m above Coire Kander (S. Aberdeen).
This stoloniferous perennial herb is found in similar habitats to subsp. nemorum, especially damp woods and hedgerows on basic soils. Generally lowland, but upper altitudinal limit unknown.
An annual growing in open conditions on light, well-drained soils. Near the coast it is found on sand dunes, shingle and in other sandy or stony places; elsewhere it occurs on waste and cultivated ground, in gravel- and sand-pits and on tracks in conifer plantations. It is sometimes also found in lawns and on walls. Lowland.
This perennial, rhizomatous herb is a species of damp and wet places, including pastures, grassy fens and marshes, especially in areas with standing water in winter. It is also able to colonise artificial habitats such as old peat diggings. Generally lowland, but reaching 360 m on Cronkley Fell (N.W. Yorks.).
A mat-forming, winter-green perennial, occurring in a range of wet habitats including mires, wet grassland, streamsides, river-banks and ditches, and especially characteristic of cattle-poached areas. 0-885 m (Helvellyn, Cumberland) with unlocalised records up to 1005 m in the Scottish Highlands.