A rhizomatous perennial herb of unshaded neutral and calcareous grasslands over a wide range of substrates including chalk, limestone, sand and clay, and a frequent pioneer of disturbed bare areas. It is tolerant of both damp and dry conditions, and also occurs in wet meadows, on spray-drenched sea-cliffs, on the uppermost parts of saltmarshes, in base-rich mountain flushes and on rock ledges. Generally lowland, but reaching 790 m on Mt Brandon (S. Kerry).
This perennial is found in the transition zone between woodland and raised mire, growing on peaty soil flushed by calcareous water from adjacent limestone outcrops. An open canopy or light shade is preferred. Lowland.
Found in a wide variety of damp, grassy habitats, this rhizomatous perennial herb is particularly common in areas influenced by man: waste ground, tracksides, roadside verges and hedge-banks. It is also frequent, however, in rough grassland, hayfields, and occasionally sand dunes, marshes and damp, open woods. It avoids highly acidic, infertile soils. 0-470 m (Hartside, Cumberland).
A perennial herb of damp, base-rich grassland and flushes. It occurs in fens, flushed valley bogs and mires, wet meadows and marshes. In lowland areas of Ireland it tolerates more acidic sites (Webb & Scannell, 1983). 0?630 m (Melmerby High Scar, Cumberland) and 760 m in W. Ross.
C. hostiana forms sterile hybrids with all three subspecies of C. viridula. These hybrids may be found in fens, wet meadows, heathland and moorland, and on the margins of lakes, especially where there is flushing with base-rich water. The hybrid with C. viridula subsp. viridula, the rarest of the three, is also found in dune-slacks. 0?440 m (Ulpha, Cumberland) and certainly higher in Scotland.
A perennial herb of closely-grazed, calcareous grassland, especially on steep slopes on chalk downland. Over limestone it also occurs locally in grazed pastures as well as on field margins, track-sides and rock outcrops. It fruits freely, but regeneration from seed and spread into new areas has only rarely been reported. Lowland.
A perennial herb occurring on wet, acidic, N.-facing slopes and rock ledges, and in nutrient-poor flushes, especially in areas of late snow-lie. Montane, from 950 m on Cairn Toul (S. Aberdeen), but formerly lower in Glen Coe, to 1150 m on Ben Macdui (S. Aberdeen).
This perennial herb characteristically grows in moist woodlands on heavy clay soils, often where there is some flushing with base-rich water. Although most frequent in shaded sites, it is sometimes found in more open situations, such as on the edges of reedbeds, in open woodland on hillsides, or occasionally in open grassy flushes and damp meadows. It is a plant of low or moderate altitudes, but ascends to about 410 m in the Slaheny Valley (Co. Kerry).
This rhizomatous perennial grows in reed-swamps and other vegetation at the edges of lakes, pools and slow-flowing streams and rivers, and in flushes and wet hollows in fens; it can also colonise old peat workings and drainage channels. It generally occurs in nutrient-poor water, which may be base-rich or base-poor. 0-650 m (E. of Beinn Heasgarnich, Mid Perth).
A perennial herb of Sphagnum mires and the wet, peaty margins of pools, often growing in standing water. Most of its sites are acidic and oligotrophic, but unlike C. magellanica, it tends to occur in areas subject to some mineral enrichment. Generally lowland, but reaching 830 m on Meall nan Tarmachan (Mid Perth).