A perennial herb of rough grasslands, roadsides, railway embankments, hedge banks, woodland rides and clearings, open scrub and waste ground. It is a plant of moist, neutral or slightly base-rich, heavy soils, and cannot withstand much competition. Lowland.
A perennial herb of moist, base-rich, sometimes clayey, soils in deciduous or mixed woodlands, often found near streams or seepages. It occurs most frequently in clearings and along tracks, but is sometimes found in considerable shade. Lowland.
This perennial herb is found in a wide range of woodland habitats, generally preferring those where there is some base-enrichment and where the soil is moist and clayey. In many woods it is particularly frequent along the sides of paths or rutted tracks. It is occasionally found in open scrub and damp grassland, but likely to be a woodland relic in such places. Generally lowland, but reaching 565 m on Ben Bulben (Co. Sligo), and reportedly at 640 m in the Scottish Highlands.
This species was known in our area only from Ormesby (E. Norfolk). Precise details of the habitat are unknown, but it must have been different from the damp dune-slacks and heaths in which it grows on the coast of W. Europe. Lowland.
A rhizomatous perennial herb of flushed, moderately basic to slightly acidic mountain grassland; also found in flush bogs and on rock ledges. It can be locally abundant and form large patches by rhizomatous growth, but is a shy flowerer and for that reason may often be overlooked. From 370 m at Creag an Eirionnaich near Blair Atholl (Mid Perth) to 1150 m on Cairn Toul (S. Aberdeen), but usually found above 700 m.
A perennial herb of wet habitats, mainly mesotrophic and at least slightly basic, occurring where the water table lies close to or above the soil surface. It is found by lakes, rivers, streams, ponds and canals, in marshes and swamps, ditches, wet meadows and depressions in pasture, and in wet woodland. It also colonises wet hollows in disused sand-, gravel- and clay-pits. 0-455 m (Llyn Gorast, Cards.).
A perennial herb of fens and calcareous mires, especially in areas of winter flooding. It is also frequent base-rich flushes and wet ledges on sea-cliffs, hills and mountainsides, usually in short, open vegetation. 0?775 m (Coire nan Laogh, Glen Banchory, Easterness).
This perennial grows on wet ground on soils ranging from acidic to neutral or occasionally mildly alkaline. It is found in a wide variety of open habitats, including sandy shores, tracks, streamsides, wet fields and heathland, the margins of ponds and lakes, wet rocky hillsides, flushes and seepage areas. 0?930 m (Beinn Heasgarnich, Mid Perth).
This perennial herb occurs in open, damp or wet habitats, including dune-slacks, the upper edge of saltmarshes and on the stony margins of lakes or pools, and in open fens and marshes. It usually occurs on flushed acidic soils, but also locally on base-rich substrates. Lowland, but possibly to 400 m in Perthshire.
A perennial herb of wet, open or shaded habitats, usually on heavy clay soils that are flooded in winter and dry in summer. It occurs by ditches and rivers, in meadows and in a Quercus-Crataegus thicket. It sometimes grows in standing water. Plants fruit freely. Lowland.