This rhizomatous perennial herb may grow as an aquatic in shallow water in lakes, pools, the backwaters of rivers, streams and ditches, or in a dwarf, subterrestrial state in wet Sphagnum lawns or `brown moss` communities. It is usually restricted to acidic water, only rarely occurring in highly calcareous but nutrient-poor sites. 0-780 m (Lochan an Tairbh-uisge, Mid Perth).
This species has declined in parts of S.E. England where suitable habitats have always been rare, and have been gradually reduced by habitat destruction, drainage or falling water-tables.
Suboceanic Temperate element; also in N. America.
Height (cm): 10
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Clonality - secondary
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)
Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 8,
, London, (1995)
Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland,
, Colchester, (1997)