Epilobium brunnescens (New Zealand Willowherb)
A creeping perennial herb of moist open areas, on gravel, gritty or stony soils, on substrates ranging from acidic to very base-rich. It grows on streamsides, ditches, tracks and paths, screes, quarries, damp stone walls and banks. It spreads by rooting at the nodes, and by seed, and is well-naturalised in many remote localities. 0-915 m (Y Garn, Caerns.) and reportedly higher in Ireland.
This species was first recorded in the wild in 1904 in Edinburgh, and its subsequent spread in the wild has accelerated from the 1930s. It is much more widespread than when mapped in the 1962 Atlas, particularly in the north and west.
Native of New Zealand.
Montane habitats (acid grassland and heath with montane species)
Inland rock (quarries, cliffs, screes)
Height (cm): 4
Perennation - primary
Perennation - secondary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Clonality - secondary
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections.
A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
. 1961. Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 80. Epilobium nerterioides A. Cunn. Journal of Ecology. 49:753-759.
. 1968. A New Zealand Willow-herb in Wales. Nature in Wales. 11:74-78.
. 1995. The spread of Epilobium brunnescens, a non-indigenous species, in Cwm Idwal NNR, its effects on the local indigenous flora and the possible effect of climate change on its spread.
. 1998. Hybrids of Epilobium brunnescens (Cockayne) Raven & Englehorn (Onagraceae) and their occurrence in the British Isles. Watsonia. 22:49-60.
. 1976. The genus Epilobium (Onagraceae) in Australasia: a systematic and evolutionary study. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin. 216