A rhizomatous perennial herb of dry, calcareous grasslands and sand dunes. 0-305 m (Burren, Co. Clare).
This species has undergone a substantial decline in some eastern parts of its range since the 1962 Atlas as a result of the ploughing or improvement of its calcareous grassland habitat, and the neglect of what remains. Populations elsewhere are probably relatively stable, although the species is still declining in some limestone areas as, for example, in Oxfordshire (Killick et al., 1998). There are two subspecies in our area: subsp. cynanchica is found throughout the range of the species; subsp. occidentalis has been recorded from Alderney, Dorset, S. Wales and W. Ireland.
European Temperate element.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 3
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 2
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.9
Annual Precipitation (mm): 842
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.