An annual of grassy banks, meadows, roadsides and waste places. It is a frequent, often unintentional, constituent of seed mixtures, but rarely persists once a closed sward has developed. Its persistence in some areas probably relies on repeated introductions. 0-350 m at Stainmore (Westmorland).
T. hybridum used to be much grown as a forage crop and was recorded from the wild by 1762. It is still grown on a small scale as a green manure. It was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas, and its distribution is stable.
Native subspecies occur in S. Europe & S.W. Asia, especially in the mountains. Most of our plants are the cultivated subsp. hybridum, which is widely naturalised further north in Europe and elsewhere.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)