A saprophytic perennial herb of leaf litter in shaded woodlands, most frequent under Fagus and Corylus on calcareous substrates, and under Pinus on more acidic soils. It also grows in damp dune-slacks, where it is usually associated with Salix repens. 0-395 m (Buxton, Derbys.).
A polyploid complex, with two subspecies in our area which are not easily separable morphologically. Although many sites were lost before 1930, the species has suffered a further marked decline in S. England since the 1962 Atlas. Though rare in Ireland, Curtis & McGough (1988) considered it to have been under-recorded in recent years.
Circumpolar Temperate element.
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 288
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 24
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: -1.09
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas Supp (45b
c) Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1978)