A tree of parkland, large gardens and estates, churchyards, urban streets and village greens; also a constituent of deciduous and mixed woodland. It is sometimes self-sown in scrubby areas, waste ground or rough grassland, and occasionally regenerates in woodland, but is rarely fully naturalised. Generally lowland, but reaching 505 m at Ashgill (Cumberland).
This species was introduced into cultivation in 1612 or 1615, and was recorded from the wild by 1870. It is now better recorded in S.W. England, Wales and Ireland than in the 1962 Atlas, but its overall range has changed little.
Native of the Balkan peninsula; other species in the family are found in S. & E. Asia and the Americas.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
1970. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, edn 8, I. A-C.
1996. Flora Britannica.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
1996. Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain.