An annual of open places on damp, sandy sites, often near the sea and usually on acidic soils. Habitats include sand dunes, sandy cliffs, along paths and tracks on heathland, and in forest rides. It is a poor competitor where grazing is relaxed and general disturbance ceases. Lowland.
Many sites, especially inland ones, were lost before 1930. In England these losses have continued or accelerated, possibly through changes in heathland management, but the distribution is stable elsewhere. It is also very easily overlooked, and is probably under-recorded.
European Temperate element; also in N. America and widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 7
Reaction (Ellenberg): 5
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.2
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.8
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1155
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 532
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 87
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 7
Atlas Change Index: -1.16
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1978)