This stoloniferous perennial occurs as a submerged aquatic in rivers and streams, and as an emergent species at the edges of lakes, ponds, rivers, ditches and canals, and in marshes. It is also found on seasonally-flooded wet ground, and usually roots into fine silt or mud. Vegetative spread is by short-lived stolons or rhizomes, but little is known of the frequency of reproduction by seed. Lowland.
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. Declines have occurred, and analysis of the database reveals that most of these losses have occurred since 1950. They are probably caused by drainage and habitat destruction.
European Temperate element; also in C. Asia and N. America.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland,
, Colchester, (1997)
Umbellifers of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 2,
, London, (1980)