An aquatic which grows submerged in still or slowly flowing, eutrophic water in lakes, ponds, rivers, canals and ditches. It may be so abundant in ponds and ditches that it forms dense masses which rise above the water surface. Reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation, but seeds are produced in still-water habitats in some years. Lowland.
This species appears to be more frequent than shown in the 1962 Atlas. This probably reflects better recording of aquatic plants, but there is little doubt that because this species grows in eutrophic water its distribution is at least stable, if not increasing.
Circumpolar Southern-temperate element.
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.