A biennial of damp places, such as ditches and river banks, and of drier habitats, including rough grassland, waste ground, rubbish tips and roadsides. It is a colonist of disturbed areas, particularly on dredged mud, sometimes forming large stands. Generally lowland, but reaching 305 m at Llynheillyn (Rads.).
The distribution of C. maculatum is little changed since the 1962 Atlas, although the map suggests declines on the edges of its range. Conversely, local increases in its core areas have been reported, particularly in open habitats (Killick et al., 1998).
As an archaeophyte C. maculatum has a Eurosiberian Southern-temperate distribution; it is widely naturalised outside this range.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2
Annual Precipitation (mm): 915
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.