A tuberous perennial herb found in woodland, hedgerows, churchyards and rough grassland, and on roadsides, river banks and walls. It occurs as a garden escape or throw-out, and often becomes naturalised. Reproduction is by seed and tubers. Lowland.
C. solida was cultivated in Britain by 1596 and was first recorded as naturalised in the wild in 1796. Its overall distribution is likely to be stable.
A Eurosiberian Boreo-temperate species, absent as a native from much of W. Europe.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Jalas & Suominen (1991)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)