An annual of dry grasslands and grassland-scrub mosaics. Its habitats include sand dunes, scrubby cliff slopes, hedge banks, field margins, chalk and limestone downland, railway banks and old quarries. It is usually on calcareous soils, and is often a pioneer on disturbed sites. It favours warm, sheltered, often S.-facing banks and hollows. Lowland.
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. There has been widespread decline in S.E. and N. England; analysis of the database reveals that most losses have occurred since 1950. These are probably due to habitat destruction, intensification of grassland management and scrub encroachment.
European Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.