A perennial herb of damp, deciduous woods and shaded banks, where it grows on winter-wet, calcareous to mildly acidic clay and loam soils, and also over rocks in W. Scotland. It is regarded as an indicator of ancient woodland in some parts of E. England. However, it is able to colonise open sites which are disturbed by felling or fire, and there is evidence of spread to more recent woodland in some upland areas. 0-380 m (W. of Dockray, Cumberland).
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. It is now better recorded, and there is no evidence of a genuine change in its overall distribution.
Circumpolar Boreo-temperate element, with a disjunct distribution.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Comparative Plant Ecology,
, London, (1988)
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)