A tuberous perennial herb of shallow water in ditches, the banks of streams, rivers, canals, lakes and ponds, roadside culverts, marshes and wet woodland, among boulders at the top of beaches and on dripping or flushed sea-cliffs. Reproduction is usually by seed, and it perhaps spreads when detached tuberous roots are washed downstream. Generally lowland, but reaching 320 m in The Paps (N. Kerry).
Though highly poisonous to man and animals, this species is rarely eradicated from sites, and its national distribution is largely stable.
Suboceanic Southern-temperate element.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.