This dioecious rhizomatous perennial herb is naturalised on streamsides, banks, rough ground and roadsides, where it sometimes forms large, very persistent stands. Lowland.
P. fragrans was introduced in 1806, and the male plant is grown as an ornamental in gardens and some churchyards. It was known in the wild by at least 1835 (Middlesex), and was well established by the start of the 20th century (Dunn, 1905). It appears to be still spreading in Britain and Ireland. Female plants are unknown in our area.
Native of the C. Mediterranean region in Europe (Italy, Sicily, Sardinia) and of N. Africa.
Light (Ellenberg): 5
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.1
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.3
Annual Precipitation (mm): 941
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.