Tordylium maximum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaApiaceaeTordyliumTordylium maximum


An annual or biennial herb of neutral grassland and in grassy thorn scrub, on clayey or alluvial soils. The sites are sheltered and S.-facing. Its seed is apparently short-lived. Lowland.



World Distribution

Native from S. & S.C. Europe and N. Turkey to the Caucasus and N. Iran.

Broad Habitats

Neutral grassland (includes coarse Arrhenatherum grassland)

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 3

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16.3

Annual Precipitation (mm): 739

Life form information

Height (cm): 100

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)

Comment on Life Form

CTW say it is an annual.



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 11

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 1

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.