An annual found naturalised on free-draining sandy soils, usually where there is regular disturbance. Habitats include the edges of arable fields, on tracks, sandy banks, and open rough grassland. Lowland.
This species was grown in Britain in 1775. It was not recorded from the wild until 1933, and has only ever been known at a few sites. Numbers in individual populations can fluctuate greatly, and it is vulnerable to herbicides. It is less common in Breckland than at the time of the 1962 Atlas, although it has been successfully introduced to new sites.
A European Southern-temperate species, absent as a native from much of W. Europe.
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 6
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1978)
An ecological Flora of Breckland,
, East Ardsley, (1979)