A mat-forming perennial with a woody base and herbaceous stems, occurring as a naturalised garden escape in woodland, on roadsides, moorland and sand dunes, along tracks and paths and in other sparsely-vegetated places. Some populations are very persistent. Lowland.
A robust, clump-forming perennial herb, persisting where it is dumped from gardens in sites such as roadsides, railway banks, waste places and in woodlands. Flowering is irregular, particularly in shaded sites. Although seed is produced, spread is almost exclusively through dispersal of root fragments. Lowland.
A deciduous tree, native in woodland, scrub and old hedgerows on a wide range of moist, usually base-rich, soils. It is also widespread as a planted tree in amenity areas, on farmland, along roads and in hedgerows and coppice. It fruits erratically, sometimes producing only male flowers following a year of prolific fruiting. 0-380 m (Llanthony, Brecon).
A fast-growing deciduous tree planted in parks and large gardens, and on roadsides, and self-sown in grassland, hedgerows and waste land. Extensive suckering has been reported. Lowland.
A dioecious, deciduous tree planted in town parks, gardens, car parks and streets, and sometimes also found on railway banks. Establishment from seed is rare, but natural regeneration has been reported in S.E. England. Lowland.
A deciduous tree planted in woodland, hedgerows, amenity areas, gardens and along roads. It tolerates a wide range of soil types and is frequently self-sown, becoming naturalised in secondary woodland, rough grassland, scrub and urban waste land. Generally lowland, but reaching 340 m at Alston (Cumberland).
A large, rapidly growing deciduous tree of plantations, woods, parkland, estates, large gardens and roadsides, prolifically self-sowing and naturalised in a very wide range of natural, semi-natural and man-made habitats, avoiding only the most acidic and waterlogged soils. In upland areas, however, it is often restricted to sites associated with habitation. 0-580 m (Dowgang Hush, Cumberland).
A large, fast-growing, deciduous tree of town parks, large gardens and roadsides. It rarely sets seed in Britain, although establishment from seed has been reported from the London area. Lowland.
This tuberous perennial herb is found in old chalk-pits and limestone quarries, calcareous grassland and on road verges. It tolerates considerable shade and is often found at the edge of scrub with grasses such as Brachypodium pinnatum. Continuous heavy grazing is detrimental, eventually causing its demise. Lowland.
A perennial herb that is naturalised on waste ground at Newport Docks (Mons.). It occurs as a rare casual elsewhere. Lowland.