A rhizomatous perennial herb found in a wide variety of disturbed habitats, especially hedgerows, road verges, churchyards, neglected gardens and waste ground. It typically occurs near habitation or in the vicinity of abandoned settlements, such as in woodlands. It reproduces by seed and by its aggressive rhizome system. 0-450 m (Nenthead, Cumberland).
An ornamental tree planted in parkland and large gardens, and as a street tree. It also occurs, rarely, as a minor introduction in deciduous and mixed woodland. Lowland.
A tree of parkland, large gardens and estates, churchyards, urban streets and village greens; also a constituent of deciduous and mixed woodland. It is sometimes self-sown in scrubby areas, waste ground or rough grassland, and occasionally regenerates in woodland, but is rarely fully naturalised. Generally lowland, but reaching 505 m at Ashgill (Cumberland).
A deciduous tree planted in woodland, parks and on roadsides. It occasionally becomes well naturalised, reproducing freely by seed. Lowland.
An annual of hedge banks, waste places, arable fields and other cultivated ground. Lowland.
A perennial herb of basic and neutral soils, occurring in hedge banks, on woodland margins and rides, in field-borders and open grassland, on roadsides and railway banks, and sometimes in waste places. It reproduces and spreads by seed. 0-365 m (N.W. Yorks.).
An erect perennial herb found in similar habitats to A. eupatoria, including hedgerows, woodland margins and roadside verges, generally on soils which are neither strongly calcareous nor strongly acidic. 0-335 m (Fortingall, Mid Perth).
An annual weed of cereal and other arable crops, tolerant of various soil types, with its distribution largely mirroring that of the crops in which it grew. Lowland.
A stoloniferous, perennial grass of infertile, acidic, peaty soils in mires, wet heath, fens and fen-meadows, springs and soakways, swamps and water margins. It may exploit vegetation gaps or act as a dominant. It spreads by stolon fragments. 0-1035 m (Macgillycuddy`s Reeks, S. Kerry).
A rhizomatous, occasionally stoloniferous, perennial herb occurring mainly on dry or damp, neutral to moderately acidic soils; its habitats include lowland pastures, hay meadows, upland hill-pasture, heaths, open woodland and scrub, sand dunes and a range of ruderal habitats including areas contaminated by heavy metals. It is extensively used as a lawn grass, on its own or with other species. 0-1210 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).