Early Hair-grass

An annual of sandy, gravelly and rocky places, commonly on thin acidic soils around rock outcrops, on walls, cliff-tops, heaths and sand dunes. It is rarely recorded as a wool casual. Generally lowland, but reaching 685 m on Mangerton Mountain (S. Kerry).


An annual or biennial herb of arable field margins and bare tracks on calcareous soils, and on open chalk downland. Its seeds are long-lived and this has led to its reappearance following disturbance at some sites. Lowland.

Pyramidal Bugle

A perennial herb of free-draining slopes, rock crevices and shallow peat in open heathland and grassland overlying moderately acidic, or occasionally neutral or basic, soils. Reproduction is mainly from seed, which is long-lived and often germinates after disturbance. 0-650 m on Ill Bell (Westmorland).


A rhizomatous perennial herb of damp deciduous woods and woodland rides, shaded places and unimproved grassland on neutral or acidic soils, sometimes occurring in flushed ground. 0-760 m on Y Foel-fras (Caerns.).

This perennial apomict of neutral grassland is found in unimproved, species-rich hay meadows, or on the margins of meadows which have been re-seeded or are more intensively managed. It is also locally frequent on herb-rich road verges, and occasional on railway banks. From 140 m at Wolsingham to 450 m at Lanehead (both Co. Durham).

Alpine Lady`s-mantle

A perennial herb of montane grassland and grass-heath, scree, cliffs, rocky streamsides, rock crevices and ledges. It is found in well-drained habitats, in areas of solifluction and late snow-lie, and sometimes on mountain slopes subject to severe wind-scour. The soils range from acidic to strongly calcareous. It is frequently washed down to lower levels on river gravels. From near sea level in N.W. Scotland to 1270 m on Ben Macdui (S. Aberdeen).

Silver Lady`s-mantle

A small perennial herb found naturalised in two distinct habitats: montane grassland and streamsides, and in the lowlands on roadsides, river banks and in rough grassland. Some upland localities are very remote. Lowland to 455 in Glen Doll (Angus).

A perennial apomict of calcareous or neutral grassland and grass-heath, found in lowland pasture, on hill-slopes, on herb-rich banks, and in flushed areas; also on rock outcrops, and mountain ledges of basic rock. From sea level in Orkney and Shetland to 975 m on Beinn a` Chaoruinn (Westerness).

The habitats of this perennial apomict include rough pasture, grassy hill-slopes, banks and mountain flushes, woodland borders and rides, and roadside verges; it is also locally found on superficial clay-with-flints on chalk downs. 0?915 m (Ben Lui, Mid Perth).

A perennial apomict of grassland habitats, occurring in lowland pasture, hay meadows, grass-heath on hillsides, roadsides and herb-rich banks kept moist by seeping water; also amongst tall vegetation on mountain ledges and in rocky river gorges. A. glabra seems to prefer damp soils, often occurring on stream banks, and in habitats subject to spray or temporary inundation. Lowland to 1215 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).