A small annual or short-lived perennial, found at the edge of small water bodies and by the sheltered backwaters of rivers. It often grows on the cattle-poached edges of ponds, ditches and streams, in wet gateways and on paths and tracks. It tolerates a broad range of pH and nutrient levels, including nitrophilous conditions. 0-770 m (Little Dun Fell, Westmorland).
An annual of cultivated and waste ground, woodland rides, hedge banks, walls, banks and gardens, found on sandy, loam or clay soils. V. hederifolia seeds freely, with germination in spring or autumn. 0-380 m (Malham Moor, Mid-W. Yorks.).
A small, low-growing perennial herb found in damp, wet or boggy places on acidic soils, occurring on heaths, heathy pastures, moors, open woodland and Salix carr, and by streams and in flushes. In Ireland, it is most frequent beside streams and is absent from pastures. It prefers areas with moving, rather than standing, water. 0-485 m (Killakee, Co. Dublin).