An annual of arable land, less frequently occurring in other areas of disturbed ground such as gardens, waste ground and bare patches in dry grassland. It favours dry, light and base-rich soils in sunny situations. Lowland.
An annual growing in cultivated and disturbed ground in gardens, on waste ground and in arable fields, particularly with root and leaf crops. It thrives on dry, well-drained, neutral to base-rich soils in sun-warmed situations. The seeds may be dispersed by ants. Mainly lowland, but ascending to 450 m in Clun Forest (Salop).
A rhizomatous perennial of woodland glades, hedgerows and shaded stream banks, growing best when receiving dappled sun for at least part of the day. Lowland, reaching 500 m in Waterville (S. Kerry) and reportedly to 550 m elsewhere in Co. Kerry.
A biennial of disturbed ground and waste places, including roadsides, abandoned gardens, old quarries and rubbish tips, often near human habitation; it also occurs in open woodland. The seeds are very long-lived. Lowland.
A deep-rooted perennial herb, thriving on free-draining mobile or semi-stable sand dunes, often in the company of E. portlandica. It also occurs along the drift-line of sandy foreshores and less frequently on shingle. Lowland.
An annual which grows on fine shingle or coarse sand just above the high-water mark of spring tides. Lowland.
An annual of cultivated, disturbed and waste ground, frequently growing close to human habitation and favouring well-drained and nutrient-rich soils in sun-warmed situations. 0-410 m in Mid-W. Yorkshire.
An annual of cultivated and waste ground, usually growing on calcareous clays but sometimes on lighter chalk or limestone soils. It is found most frequently at the margins of arable fields, and occasionally on roadsides. Its seed is thought to be long-lived in the soil. Lowland.
A biennial or short-lived perennial herb, growing in a wide range of coastal habitats. It occurs on cliffs, rocky slopes and steep maritime grasslands overlying many different rock types, and also on shingle and sheltered or semi-fixed sand dunes. Lowland.
An annual or biennial herb of open deciduous woodland, tracks and hedge banks, growing on calcareous soils and occasionally on alluvial gravels and clays. Populations tend to decline as shade and competition increase, but soil disturbance stimulates the germination of even long-buried seeds. Lowland.