A shrub of damp or shaded habitats including woods and hedgerows. It is also widely cultivated and occurs well outside its native range in semi-natural and artificial, often drier habitats, being apparently spread by birds. 0?630 m (Macgillycuddy`s Reeks, S. Kerry).
A bushy shrub naturalised in damp or shaded habitats, including hedges, thickets and stream banks. Dispersal by birds may be significant, owing to the succulence of the young fruits, but spread is not rapid, and naturalised populations are usually found near parks and gardens. Lowland.
A low-growing, rhizomatous shrub, widely cultivated and naturalised in hedgerows and on roadsides and railway banks. Lowland.
An annual to perennial tap-rooted herb of acidic, sandy or peaty soil in flushes or by small streams on moorland, heathland or in rough grazing. It grows in wet turf which is grazed or trampled by cattle. Lowland.
A stoloniferous perennial herb of peat or peaty mineral soils in damp or wet acidic, nutrient-poor habitats, usually found in shallow water, but sometimes terrestrial, or in deeper water where it may form floating mats. It occurs in heathland pools, on the margins of ponds and slow-flowing streams, and along seepages and runnels in mires. 0-425 m (Exmoor, S. Somerset).
A semi-evergreen shrub found as a naturalised garden escape on walls, rough grassland and on limestone debris. Lowland.
A bushy shrub naturalised in shaded habitats, and occasionally also in more open places where its growth is often stunted. Lowland.
A perennial herb of well-drained, neutral to basic soils in open or partially shaded habitats including rough and ungrazed grassland, woodland rides and clearings, river banks, roadside banks and verges. 0-450 m at Garrigill (Cumberland).
A short-lived perennial herb of open well-drained habitats (heaths, dry moors, open woodlands, tracksides, sometimes roadside banks) on light acidic soils; if apparently on calcareous soils, then rooting in a shallow acidic surface layer. Generally lowland, but reaching 530 m at Cat-and-Fiddle, Cheshire.
A short-lived perennial, or sometimes biennial, herb of steep rocky slopes and eroded banks with a southerly aspect, on well-drained acidic soils and without shading or competition. It reproduces by seed, which is copiously produced. Lowland.