A tufted, grass-like perennial herb of woods and other moist but well-drained shaded places, often on roadside-banks and in hedgerows, generally on fairly acidic soils but not confined to them. Plants usually occur in leaf-litter or moss-dominated sites, and competition is rarely tolerated. In upland areas, more exposed sites such as quarries, pastures and rough ground are occupied. 0-670 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. A decline, especially in C. & E. England, has taken place and analysis of the database reveals that most of these losses have occurred since 1950.
Eurosiberian Boreo-temperate element.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Comparative Plant Ecology,
, London, (1988)
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)