Pinus contorta

Tracheophyta PinopsidaPinaceaePinusPinus contorta


This evergreen tree of plantations is generally grown in more exposed and higher rainfall areas than P. sylvestris, where it will cope with poor, wet soils. It regenerates from seed freely and becomes naturalised in suitable habitats, particularly heathland. The altitudinal range is unknown.



World Distribution

Native of western N. America; widely planted in N. Europe.

Broad Habitats

Coniferous woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 5

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 2


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.3

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1302

Life form information

Height (cm): 2500

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 444

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 116

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 2

Weighted Changed Factor: 59

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

FNAEC (1993b)
Hultén E
1968.  Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories.
James NDG
1982.  The Forester's Companion.
Mitchell (1972