An evergreen, or sometimes aestivating, perennial herb typical of sites shaded from hot sun, found in woodland, on N.-facing banks, in hedgerows, coastal slopes and shaded montane cliffs. Reproduction is by seed, which is usually dispersed by ants. 0-850 m (Mt Brandon, S. Kerry).
Unlike P. veris, populations of P. vulgaris have not fluctuated markedly during the last century in most parts of Britain and Ireland. However, in East Anglia woodland populations have declined greatly in response to a series of hot, dry summers from 1970 onwards (Rackham, 1999).
European Temperate element.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas Supp (46c)
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1996. Flora Britannica.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
1997. A metapopulation model for Primula vulgaris, a temperate forest understorey herb. Journal of Ecology. 85:193-210.