Viola riviniana


This perennial herb occurs in a wide range of habitats, including open deciduous woodland, hedge banks and road verges, meadows, heaths, moorland, mountain grassland, rocky slopes and cliff ledges; it can become a serious weed in gardens. It avoids wet areas but is generally indifferent to soil type, shunning only the most acidic habitats. 0-1020 m (Stuchd an Lochain, Mid Perth).



World Distribution

European Temperate element.

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 6

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 5

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.4

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1112

Life form information

Height (cm): 18

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Clonality - secondary

Clones formed by suckering from roots

Comment on Clonality

"root-sprouting in some plants, implying that not all can do it (CPE)"

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2741

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 968

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: 1.07

Weighted Changed Factor: -24

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

Atlas (53d)
The pollination ecology of Viola. 2, Pollen loads of insect-visitors,
Beattie, A. J.
, Watsonia, Volume 9, p.13-25, (1972)

Comparative Plant Ecology,
Grime, J. P., Hodgson J. G., and Hunt R.
, London, (1988)

Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
Hultén, E., and Fries M.
, Königstein, (1986)

Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
Meusel, H., Jäger E., Rauschert S., and Weinert E.
, Jena, (1978)