This perennial herb occurs in a wide range of habitats, including open deciduous woodland, hedge banks and road verges, meadows, heaths, moorland, mountain grassland, rocky slopes and cliff ledges; it can become a serious weed in gardens. It avoids wet areas but is generally indifferent to soil type, shunning only the most acidic habitats. 0-1020 m (Stuchd an Lochain, Mid Perth).
There has been no significant change in the distribution of V. riviniana since the 1962 Atlas.
European Temperate element.
Height (cm): 18
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Clonality - secondary
Comment on Clonality
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
1972. The pollination ecology of Viola. 2, Pollen loads of insect-visitors. Watsonia. 9:13-25.
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.