A rhizomatous perennial herb occurring as a naturalised garden escape or relic of cultivation in woodland, quarries, churchyards and on shaded roadsides. Lowland.
This species was being cultivated in Britain by 1629, but was not recorded as naturalised in the wild until 1903 (Cumberland).
Native of C. Europe.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Jalas & Suominen (1994)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1991. Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 6.