A biennial herb of woodland margins, ditch-banks, damp hedge bottoms, streamsides, tall grassland, roadsides, railway banks and waste places, especially on clay soils with a high nutrient status. In Ireland, it is confined as a native to dry banks and waste places. Generally lowland, but reaching 365 m above Castleton (Derbys.).
The core distribution of C. crispus is stable. It may only have been present as a casual in squares at the periphery of its range from which it has not been recorded recently. In N. Scotland it is only present as an introduction in waste places.
Eurosiberian Temperate element, but widely naturalised so that distribution is now Circumpolar Temperate.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.4
Annual Precipitation (mm): 832
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.