An erect annual of mildly acidic to calcareous soils. Inland it is found in dry, open grasslands and heaths, in woodland rides, marl pits and other open, disturbed ground. On the coast it is a plant of open sandy and muddy grassy places, often by estuaries, sand dunes and in upper saltmarsh. Lowland.
The overall distribution of this species has remained stable although there has been some decline on heathland due to lack of management (particularly grazing), and coastal development has led to the loss of some of its former sites. It is much better recorded than in the 1962 Atlas.
Eurosiberian Southern-temperate element.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 8
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16.1
Annual Precipitation (mm): 841
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.