A perennial herb of roadsides, field margins and rough grassland on a wide range of soils. Lowland.
Though C. intybus was formerly regarded as a native, at least in England and Wales, doubt is now cast on that status by most modern local Floras, which suggest it is always a relic of its former cultivation as a fodder crop. This species has declined as it is now rarely cultivated.
As an archaeophyte C. intybus has a Eurosiberian Southern-temperate distribution, but it is widely naturalised so that its distribution is now Circumpolar Southern-temperate.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.5
Annual Precipitation (mm): 840
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.