Conium maculatum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaApiaceaeConiumConium maculatum


A biennial of damp places, such as ditches and river banks, and of drier habitats, including rough grassland, waste ground, rubbish tips and roadsides. It is a colonist of disturbed areas, particularly on dredged mud, sometimes forming large stands. Generally lowland, but reaching 305 m at Llynheillyn (Rads.).



World Distribution

As an archaeophyte C. maculatum has a Eurosiberian Southern-temperate distribution; it is widely naturalised outside this range.

Broad Habitats

Boundary and linear features (eg hedges, roadsides, walls)

Light (Ellenberg): 8

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2

Annual Precipitation (mm): 915

Life form information

Height (cm): 250

Perennation - primary

Biennial, including monocarpic perennials

Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1847

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 476

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 13

Atlas Change Index: -0.02

Weighted Changed Factor: 13

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.