A biennial of grassy and disturbed habitats on well-drained soils. It is found in bare places on chalk and limestone downs, on heaths, in quarries and chalk-pits, in cultivated and waste land, along railways and roadsides, and by the coast on cliffs, sand dunes and shingle. Generally lowland, but formerly reaching 365 m as an alien at Braemar (S. Aberdeen).
Since 1930 E. vulgare has declined somewhat in frequency, due to agricultural intensification, reclamation, and the development of neglected ground.
Eurosiberian Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6
Annual Precipitation (mm): 822
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.