A glaucous, spiny perennial herb confined to coasts, occurring mainly on incipient and mobile sand dunes and occasionally on shingle. Lowland.
This species disappeared from most of its sites in N.E. England and E. Scotland before 1930, for reasons which are unclear. There has evidently been some further decline since then.
European Southern-temperate element.
Light (Ellenberg): 9
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 3
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.7
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1010
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 291
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 106
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11
Atlas Change Index: -0.8
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols,
, Königstein, (1986)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1978)
Umbellifers of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 2,
, London, (1980)