A rhizomatous perennial herb of neutral or acidic soils in old woods and shaded hedge banks, more rarely found amongst scrub and around rock outcrops. In woods it is a light-demanding plant which may re-appear from buried seed after coppicing. It is also cultivated as a garden plant, where it is persistent and can be very invasive. Generally lowland, reaching 455 m at Rhydymain (Merioneth).
There has been no change in the distribution of this species since the 1962 Atlas. The native subsp. amygdaloides occurs throughout the native range of the species; the alien subsp. robbiae is mapped separately.
European Temperate element.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.