A tuberous perennial herb of calcareous, well-drained soils. Habitats include grasslands, scrub, railway banks, roadsides, lawns, sand dunes and limestone pavement; also disturbed sites such as quarries, gravel-pits and industrial waste ground. 0-335 m (near Parsley Hay, Derbys.).
The overall distribution of this species in Britain is stable, but it has declined in Ireland, where many losses were before 1930. Declines are due to habitat destruction, especially ploughing of grassland and the in-filling of quarries. It is, however, much better recorded now, and readily colonises newly available sites.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.7
Annual Precipitation (mm): 807
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.
Atlas text references
The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants,
, Dublin, (1988)
Wild orchids of Dorset,
, Gillingham, (1991)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols,
, Jena, (1965)
The orchids of Suffolk,
, Ipswich, (1991)
Wells & Cox (1989