A shade-tolerant tuberous herb usually found on chalk and limestone soils in open deciduous woodland and scrub, but also recorded from grassland, chalk-pits, limestone pavement, disused railways, spoil heaps and, rarely, unstable coastal cliffs. In Ireland and Anglesey it is found only in open calcareous flushes and fens. 0-390 m (Helbeck Wood, Westmorland).
This species declined dramatically before 1930, especially in East Anglia. Since then the losses have continued, but at a reduced rate. Most losses are due to scrub encroachment, the closing of woodland canopies, woodland clearance and drainage of fens.
European Temperate element.
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 264
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 31
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: -1.34
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.