Ornithogalum pyrenaicum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaLiliaceaeOrnithogalumOrnithogalum pyrenaicum

Ecology

A bulbous perennial herb of Fraxinus-Ulmus woodland, hedgerows, road verges and rough grassy banks on calcareous soils, and a particular feature of green lanes on the borders of Somerset and Wiltshire. Lowland.

Status

Native

World Distribution

Submediterranean-Subatlantic element.

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 5

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

0

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16.2

Annual Precipitation (mm): 773

Life form information

Height (cm): 75

Perennation - primary

Perennial

Life Form - primary

Bulbous geophyte

Woodiness

Herbaceous

Clonality - primary

Tuberous or bulbous, slowing cloning by offsets

Comment on Clonality

Check

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 33

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: 0.14

Distribution information

JNCC Designations

NBNSYS0000002181

Scarce Atlas Account

Scarce Atlas Account: 

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum L.

Spiked star-of-Bethlehem

Status: scarce

 

This plant typically grows in hedges, copses and woods, especially on oolitic limestone and clays but occasionally on other calcareous substrates. It is often very abundant in ash-elm woodland, associated with Allium ursinum and Hyacinthoides non-scripta. It also occurs along old green lanes, in unimproved pasture and along river banks. 

This is a bulbous perennial which flowers early in June. Seeds are large, and seedlings appear en masse in woodlands in early spring and require several seasons to develop to maturity. Vegetative reproduction occurs by means of lateral buds which develop from mature bulbs.

O. pyrenaicum is still abundant in its British stronghold near Bath. However, it has declined in elm-dominated woods where nettles have recently become very abundant following the death of standing trees by disease and the consequent admission of light and release of nutrients. Other sites in the Bath area have been lost to building land.

In Europe the plant occurs in Belgium, south-west Switzerland, Austria, the mountains of Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece. Elsewhere it is found in the Crimea, Asia minor and Morocco.

The unopened flower spikes used to be collected and sold in bundles under the name Bath Asparagus, a custom which has ceased in recent years. White (1912) considered that they were ‘very little inferior to the cultivated esculent’.

 

D. E. Green

PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

Atlas (315d)
Hill DJ, Price B
2000.  Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 210. Ornithogalum pyrenaicum L. Journal of Ecology. 88:354-365.
Stewart A, Pearman DA, Preston CD
1994.  Scarce plants in Britain.