Picea abies

Tracheophyta PinopsidaPinaceaePiceaPicea abies


An evergreen tree of plantations and shelter-belts, grown in a wide variety of soils but not suited to deep peat, dry soils and exposed situations. It seeds freely, and natural regeneration occurs in open ground, in clear-felled areas and on heathland. Generally lowland, but upper altitudinal limit unknown.



World Distribution

A Eurasian Boreal-montane species; absent as a native from W. Europe.

Broad Habitats

Coniferous woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 6

Reaction (Ellenberg): 3

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.2

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.7

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1054

Life form information

Height (cm): 4600

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1460

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 120

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 2

Weighted Changed Factor: 59

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references