A perennial herb, naturalised in woodlands and scrub, on banks and rough ground, and also occurring on rubbish tips and waste ground. Generally lowland, but reaching 385 m (Forest-in-Teesdale, Co. Durham).
This species was cultivated in Britain before 1597, and is now commonly grown in gardens. Though some occurrences were treated as possibly native in the 1962 Atlas, it is now regarded as an introduction at all its British sites; it was recorded from the wild by 1793. The number of records has increased since the 1962 Atlas, particularly in southern England, reflecting both increased abundance and more intensive recording of aliens.
A European Temperate species, absent as a native from much of W. Europe.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.