A rhizomatous evergreen perennial shrub which is grown in gardens and naturalised on woodland edges and, formerly, in a quarry. It reproduces vegetatively to form thickets, and by seed. Lowland.
This species was being grown in Britain by 1596 and is common in gardens. It was recorded from the wild in 1934 (W. Kent) and in a quarry near Edinburgh (Midlothian) in 1975, where it may have been planted by 1946.
Native of C. & S.E. Europe and N. Turkey.
PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.