Trifolium dubium

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaFabaceaeTrifoliumTrifolium dubium


A winter-annual of hay meadows, waysides and waste places, and also frequent in lawns. Like T. campestre, it is most frequent in dry grasslands, but can be abundant too in winter-flooded meadows and damp pastures, and can thrive even in fairly nutrient-enriched situations. It also occurs in open habitats such as on rock outcrops, quarry spoil and railway ballast. Generally lowland, but reaching 530 m at Garrigill (Cumberland).



World Distribution

European Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

© Shannon, P

Broad Habitats

Neutral grassland (includes coarse Arrhenatherum grassland)

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5


Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.6

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1072

Life form information

Height (cm): 15

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Distribution information

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2548

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 942

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: -0.11

Weighted Changed Factor: 30

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


Distribution information

JNCC Designations


PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish plants. (.zip 1455KB) This dataset was compiled and published in 2004, and last updated in November 2008. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Atlas text references

Atlas (109b)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.